Eyona Ezopolitiko Yintoni eyenzekileyo: Ukuhlangana okumangalisayo kukaHillary Clinton kunye neVietnam

Yintoni eyenzekileyo: Ukuhlangana okumangalisayo kukaHillary Clinton kunye neVietnam

Owayengunobhala welizwe u-Hillary Clinton ubulisa abaphulaphuli xa efika ezosayina ikopi yencwadi yakhe entsha ethi Kwenzekeni ngexesha lomsitho e-Barnes nase Noble venkile ngoSeptemba 12, 2017 kwisiXeko saseNew York.Ifoto nguDrew Angerer / Getty Izithombe



Ngokuzenzekelayo, kwiveki ephelileyo incwadi kaHillary Clinton yokugqibela Kweneke ntoni kunye noKen Burns 'kunye no-Lynn Novick wePBS okhethekileyo Imfazwe yaseVietnam bakhululwa. Zombini zenzelwe ukufunda kunye nokubukela okunomdla. Ngelishwa kwaye ngelishwa, uClinton akazange ayiqonde eyona nto ibalulekileyo ebangela ilahleko yakhe kunyulo luka-2016 luka-Mongameli okanye uBurns no-Novick i-American debacle e-Vietnam kumashumi amane eminyaka ngaphambili.

Kwincwadi yakhe, uClinton wazama ngobunzima obukhulu ukuchaza isizathu sokubethwa kwakhe UDonald Trump , umntu amjonga njengongafanelekanga ukuba abe sesikhundleni. Kudliwanondlebe ngaphambi kokuba uthotho lwenziwe kumabonwakude, uBurns wathembisa ukuba akaqondi ukuba iMfazwe yaseVietnam yadibana njani nobusuku obabusithi ama-58,000 e-US kunye nabantu baseVietnam, baseCambodia nabaseLaotian. Kuyacaca, nangona kunjalo, kucace gca ukuba kutheni uHillary kunye ne-United States boyiswa-nangona iimeko zazikho kwiiyunivesithi kunye nakumashumi eminyaka ngokwahlukana. Zombini iinkokheli zikaClinton kunye naseMelika ezivela kuHarry Truman ukuya kuLyndon Johnson basilele ukuqonda imigaqo-nkqubo yokuqala yezopolitiko kunye nesicwangciso.

Ukungenela umongameli, linani elinye kunye nenani elinye kuphela: 270. Elo linani leevoti zeKholeji yoNyulo ezifunekayo ukukhusela ubongameli. Nawuphi na umkhankaso osilelayo ukuxabisa kwaye ugxile kuloo njongo ngokuqinisekileyo uya kuphulukana nawo. Endaweni yoko, uHillary wayefuna ukwandisa ivoti ethandwayo, awayenzayo, malunga nezigidi ezithathu.

UDonald Trump, okanye abacebisi bakhe, bayayiqonda eyona nto iphambili kwezopolitiko. UTrump waphumelela ngokucacileyo kwiKholeji yoNyulo, nangona yayivota yama-77,000 eyamthwalayo eMichigan, ePennsylvania naseWisconsin. UClinton uwathabathe ngokungakhathali la mazwe kwaye wachitha ixesha elingenakuphikiswa nakweyiphi na kuwo. Ngelixa uClinton ekhalaza ngelithi indibaniselwano yowayesakuba ngumlawuli we-FBI uJames Comey yophando ngee-imeyile zakhe, i-misogyny, ukupheliswa kwabavoti abamnyama, kunye nokungakulungeli ukubaleka ngokuchasene nomsasazi kamabonakude omdaka kwamenza waphulukana, okwenzekileyo yayiliqhinga elibi elinempazamo. UClinton ulibele ukuba indlela eya e-White House yayibaleka kwiKholeji yoNyulo-hayi ibhokisi yokuvota.

Imfazwe yaseVietnam iqondwa ngcono njengeyona ihamba gwenxa xa isicwangciso kunye nomgaqo-nkqubo ziqhutywa ziingcinga kunye nokwala okulandelayo ukucela umngeni kwiingcinga ezisisiseko. Oku kufutshane nabaqinisekisi abathile bokungaphumeleli. Njengoko iMfazwe ebandayo yaqala ukuba nzima kwaye njengoko uWinston Churchill wabhengeza kwintetho yakhe edumileyo ka-1946 eFulton, eMissouri ethi Ukusuka eStettin eBaltic ukuya eTrieste eAdriatic, ikhethini yentsimbi yehle kwilizwekazi liphela, iSoviet Union kunye nobukomanisi bayo obungenabuthixo. waba lutshaba olungagungqiyo lwedemokhrasi yaseNtshona, kanye njengokuba uHitler nobuNazi babenjalo kwiminyaka elishumi ngaphambili.

Ngokuthimba kukaMao iTshayina kunye nokusekwa kweRiphabhlikhi Yabantu ngo-1949, eli khethini lesinyithi landiselwa ngasempuma. Ngokwembono yeWashington, umanyano olumanyeneyo phakathi kwePeiping neMoscow lwenziwa. Imfazwe yaseKorea kunyaka olandelayo kunye nokungena kweTshayina okuza kuvelisa imeko eqinileyo kwaqinisa olu loyiko lonyuka laya kwiparanoia yobukomanisi be-monolithic. Ngokunyulwa kuka-Dwight Eisenhower kwi-1953, i-United States yaqala ukwandisa ubudlelwane bayo kwihlabathi jikelele ukuba iqulathe i-Soviet-Communist Chinese axis.

Emva kokuphumelela kukaHo Chi Minh kumaFrentshi ngo-1954 yahlula iVietnam ngesiqingatha yaze yamisela iDemocratic Republic of Vietnam emantla, isuphu yoonobumba bemfano yokulwa nobukomanisi yenziwa ngaphaya kweNATO, eyile SEATO, METO kunye neCENTO. Ukunika izizathu ezithile kolu manyano, ithiyori yedomino yathandwa. Ukuba elinye ilizwe kwi-Mpuma-mpuma ye-Asiya belinokuwa umzekelo, lonke liya kulandela.

Bambalwa abantu baseMelika abakulungeleyo ukucela umngeni kubume be-monolithic ye-Peiping-axis yaseMoscow okanye ukubaluleka kwethiyori yedomino. Okumangalisayo kukuba, uWalt Rostow, owayenguSekela Mcebisi wezokhuseleko kuzwelonke uJohn F. Amathemba eChina yamaKomanisi . Ngelishwa, eso sazela asikhathalelwanga.

UKennedy wayekulungele ukuhlawula naliphi na ixabiso kwaye athwale nawuphi na umthwalo wokugcina inkululeko. UJohnson wasebenzisa isiganeko sesibini seTonkin Gulf ngo-Agasti 1964 (nangona kwakungekho hlaselo olwenziwe yiNyakatho yeVietnam ngokuchasene nabatshabalalisi baseMelika kumanzi aphesheya) ukuqhubela phambili imfazwe, bekholelwa ngokungeyonyani ukuba amandla omkhosi waseMelika anganyanzela uHanoi ukuba ayeke kwaye ayeke ubundlongondlongo bakhe ngasemazantsi . Okwangoku, bambalwa abaye bazama ukucela umngeni kwezi ngcinga. Kwaye kwishumi leminyaka kamva, iUnited States yaqhutywa ngokungenantlonelo ukusuka eMzantsi Vietnam.

Izigqibo zicacile namhlanje. I-US isebenzisa abachasi abahlanu abakhulu-iRussia, i-China, i-Iran, i-North Korea ne-Da'esh-njengesiseko sokucwangciswa kwayo kwezomkhosi. Ngoba? Ngamnye kubo wahlukile ngokwemiceli mngeni ngokuchaseneyo nesoyikiso kwaye isixhobo somkhosi sinokuba sesona sifunekayo kodwa asonelanga. Lo mbuzo wokuba kutheni kufuneka uphendulwe kuba ukuba imigaqo-siseko yokuqala ayihoywanga kwaye iingcinga azicelwanga mngeni, into eyenzekileyo kuHillary naseVietnam ayizukuhlala iyiminyhadala.

UGqirha Harlan Ullman usebenze kwiQela eliCebisayo eliPhezulu le-Supreme Allied Commander yaseYurophu (2004-2016) kwaye kungoku nje nguMcebisi oMkhulu kwiBhunga laseAtlantic laseWashington D.C., ongusihlalo weenkampani ezimbini zabucala kunye nombhali oyintloko wemfundiso yokothuka kunye noloyiko. Umntu wangaphambili wenqanawa, wayalela umtshabalalisi kwiPersian Gulf kwaye wakhokela ngaphezulu kwe-150 yemisebenzi kunye nokusebenza eVietnam njengeSwipper Boat skipper. Incwadi yakhe elandelayo I-Anatomy yokuSilela: Kutheni iMelika ilahlekile yonke iMfazwe iqala iya kupapashwa ekwindla. Umbhali unokufikelelwa kwi-Twitter @harlankullman.

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