Eyona Ubugcisa Imaphu zikaMasha Gessen indlela engaphaya kweTrump 'ekusindeni kwi-Autocracy'

Imaphu zikaMasha Gessen indlela engaphaya kweTrump 'ekusindeni kwi-Autocracy'

Ukusinda kulawulo oluzenzekelayo nguMasha Gessen.IPenguin Random House



UMasha gessen Luyaluqonda uloyiko lokwenene oludalwe ngoorhulumente abangoozwilakhe. Umbhali wabasebenzi ENew Yorker kunye negalelo rhoqo kwi Uphengululo lweeNcwadi eNew York kunye nolunye upapasho, uGessen (osebenzisa izimelabizo ezingathath'icala kwezesini bona) naye ujoyina icandelo leKholeji yaseBard njengoMlobi oBalaseleyo kwindawo yokuhlala kwiCandelo leeLwimi noNcwadi oku kuwa. Emva kokufudukela e-United States esuka e-Russia njengomntwana okwishumi elivisayo ngo-1981, uGessen wabuyela kwilizwe labo lokuzalwa ngo-1991, esebenza njenge ntatheli kunye nomhleli ngelixa ebhala neencwadi ezifana no-2012. Indoda engenabuso: Ukunyuka okungenakulindeleka kukaVladimir Putin kwaye U-Ester noRuzya: Basinda Njani ooMakhulu Bam kwiMfazwe kaHitler noXolo lukaStalin ngo 2004. Ngesikhundla sabo njengomphambukeli nelizwe langaphandle, uGessen wathetha ngokuthe ngqo ngempembelelo yembali ye-fascism kunye nokuzalwa kwayo kwangoku.

Emva kweminyaka ephantse ibe ngamashumi amabini yokusebenza ejonga ezopolitiko zase-Russia kunye noluntu, ebiza ukungabikho kokusesikweni kunye nenkohliso, uGessen nosapho lwabo bafudukela e-United States ngo-2013 emva kokuba abasemagunyeni baseRussia besoyikise ngokuthatha abantwana kubazali abangamafanasini. Ukusukela ngoko, uGessen ubhale iincwadi ukusukela ngo-2014 Amagama aya kuyaphula isamente: Inkanuko yePussy Riot kwaye, ngo-2015, Abazalwana: Indlela eya kwiNkxwaleko yaseMelika, egxile kubazalwane baseTsarnaev ababebambe ibhombu ye-Boston Marathon ka-2013. Gessen ’s Ixesha elizayo yimbali: indlela iTotalismism eyabuyisa ngayo iRussia uqhubeke nokuphumelela i-2017 National Book Award.Ngenxa yobungakanani bomsebenzi wabo, kunzima ukucinga ukuba umntu othile ukulungele ukubhala incwadi ebizwa Ukusinda kulawulo oluzimeleyo, kuno Masha Gessen.

Emva konyulo lukaDonald J. Trump ngo-Novemba ngo-2016, khange kuthathe xesha kwaphela ukuba uGessen avavanye kwaye aphendule kwingxaki yezopolitiko. Ukuthetha noMninimzi ngefowuni besuka kwikhaya labo kwisiXeko saseNew York, uGessen ukhumbula, kanye emva konyulo, ndibhale esi sincoko Ukuzimela geqe: Imigaqo yokuSinda, ukwenzela i Uphengululo lweeNcwadi eNew York , eyahamba yohlobo lwe-mega yentsholongwane kwaye ndacinga ukubhala incwadi enje ngale kanye emva.

BONA KWAKHO: Uqoqo luka-Olivia Laing's Prescient Essay Collection luvavanya iNdima yobuGcisa kumaXesha oMngcipheko

Ukuzoba ngamava kaGessen noorhulumente abangoozwilakhe, esi siqwenga sibeke imithetho emithandathu emayilandelwe njengamaMelika elungiselela umgqatswa ngokungafaniyo nomnye umntu oza kuthatha ubongameli. Ezi zibandakanya amaziko awayi kukusindisa, Musa ukwenza ukulungelelanisa, kwaye Khumbula iKamva. Kude kube ngoku, abarhwebi bakaTrump babonwa njenge-hyperbolic okanye i-hysterical. Inani elifanelekileyo lesi sigwebo lalisekwe ekungenakwenzeka kwempumelelo kaTrump. Ngoku into engenakwenzeka yayiyinyani, uGessen waqinisekisa uxinzelelo oluninzi ababenalo kwaye benethemba lokubonelela ngombono kwinto eyayingelilo ugqithiso lwamandla. Banyanzelisa ukuba umntu makathathe i-autocrat ngelizwi lakhe kwaye kwakungachanekanga ukusebenzisa ubulumko obuqhelekileyo kuTrump ngokusekwe kubemi bangaphambili be-White House. Njengoko uGessen egxininisile ukuba akukho nto malunga nobongameli bukaTrump iyakuba yinto yesiqhelo, bakwalumkisa abafundi ukuba bahlale bephaphile. Kwabaninzi, eyona nto ibalulekileyo kweso silumkiso ibandakanya ukuba ngabathengi abakhutheleyo beendaba kunye nohlalutyo lwezopolitiko. UMasha Gessen.U-Lena Di



Ngelixa bekukho imfuneko ecacileyo yokubhalwa kwe-incisive ejongene nengxaki ekhoyo, uGessen wayenethemba lokuthatha ixesha labo ngaphambi kokubhala enye incwadi. Akuzange kube kudala wagqiba uGessen Ikamva yimbali . Bendingafuni ukutshintshela ekubhaleni incwadi encinci yemicimbi yangoku ke bendisebenza kwenye into okwexeshana. Kwaye emva kwexesha, oku kwaqhubeka nokungena endleleni. Ukurhoxisa iprojekthi, Ukusinda kulawulo oluzenzekelayo ithathe ingqalelo kaGessen ngenxalenye engcono yeenyanga ezintandathu ukuya kwezisibhozo.

Incwadi encinci kodwa enamandla, Ukusinda kulawulo oluzenzekelayo kubalulekile ukuba kufundwe nakubani na othi bonke abezopolitiko bayafana. UGessen uchonga iyantlukwano phakathi kukaTrump kunye nabanye abantu bezopolitiko, esenza kucace ukuba indlela aziphethe ngayo ayinabungozi okanye iyingenelo kuluntu olukhulu lwaseMelika. Emva kokuchaza iindlela uTrump nolawulo lwakhe azisa ngayo inkululeko idemokhrasi, uGessen waphula iindlela awenza ngazo lo mbono wamandla. Kwicandelo lokugqibela, Ukusinda kulawulo oluzenzekelayo igxila kumbandela omninzi wentetho kaTrump-ungquzulwano olwenziwe xa abemi baseMelika kunye nabo bonke abahlali baseMelika bahlelwa njengathi okanye bona. UGessen uyenza icace into yokuba indlela engaphaya kolawulo lobuzwilakhe ixhomekeke kwigunya lokuziphatha elidibanisa amaMelika ngokwahluka kwawo, ukusebenza kunye njengenye yezona zinto zilungileyo eluntwini.

Yincwadi ebalulekileyo kumaxesha ethu. Ukuhlala usazi iindaba ngumceli mngeni wemihla ngemihla. Kuthatha umzamo omkhulu ngakumbi kwiteleskopu ngaphaya komjikelo weendaba ongagungqiyo ukuhlalutya ubundlongondlongo kubomi boluntu nakwintlalo. U-Gessen ubonakalisa, ndicinga ukuba kubalulekile ukugcina engqondweni ukuba le meko yenkungu ayisiyiyo ifuthe elibi kule ngxaki sikuyo ngoku. Luphawu lwayo kwaye kuyinjongo kakhulu ukuba ungaze unyathele ngokupheleleyo ngaphandle kobobunzima kwaye ubuchaze. Kodwa ndiziva ngathi kukho amaxesha okucaca. Ngaphandle kwamava abo okufunda iinguqu zenyikima kwezopolitiko zase-Russia nakwezoluntu, ndibuze uGessen malunga namatye abuyela kuwo xa efuna ubulumko obukhulu bokuchaza le ngxaki iqhubekayo, eguqukayo kwezopolitiko zase-Amerika nakuluntu.

Kukho amaxesha apho ndingabuyela kumbono womntu onceda ukukhanyisa ukukhanya kwinxalenye ethile yobunzima bethu. Ngokucacileyo, njengoko unokuxela ekufundeni incwadi, kwaye mhlawumbi okunye ukubhala kwam ukuba uHannah Arendt uhlala elilitye lokuchukumisa. Umfuduki owayevela e-United States evela eYurophu ngexesha leMfazwe yesibini (II) yeHlabathi, uHannah Arendt wayengumfilosofi kunye nembono yezopolitiko eyaziwayo ngengcinga yakhe yokubhangiswa kobubi kunye novavanyo lwakhe olukhulu lobuzwilakhe, ezopolitiko kunye namandla.

Emva kokufunda ngo-Arendt kwiminyaka yabo yeshumi elivisayo kwintombi, uGessen uyaqhubeka nokukhokelwa kukucinga kuka-Arendt. Olunye lokuqonda olwalunamathele kum-kwaye eneneni, bendibuyele kuyo kakhulu-ukusuka kufundo lwam lokuqala Imvelaphi yoBuzwilakhe yeyokuba ubhala indlela ebekiweyo kwangaphambili yolawulo lwengcinezelo kukuzimisela kunye namandla okunyamezela inani elikhulu lokufa. Yayiyinto eyothusayo ukuyigcina nge-Soviet Union: ukwanda kwezigidi zobomi kwakuyimeko ebaluleke kakhulu yokugcina ulawulo. Kwaye ngoku ndihlala ndicinga emva kuloo mgca, akunjalo? Kwaye ikwangumlinganiso wokwandiswa. Kuyothusa ukudibanisa le miqathango kunye nolawulo olungamkelekanga lolawulo lukaTrump malunga neengozi ezothusayo nezihlala zisanda zokufa kubhubhane wethu wangoku. Amandla ka-Arendt angaqondakaliyo okwahlula indlela abantu abazimela ngayo yinto eyakhokelela ekubeni uSvetlana Boym, osebenza naye kunye nomhlobo kaGessen, abaxelele rhoqo, Funda uHana Arendt! njengoko uGessen wayesebenza kwincwadi yabo Abazalwana. Ukutsho oku, uBoym wayekhumbuza uGessen ukuba embe ngakumbi kwaye abe nobuchule ngakumbi ekucingeni kwam.

Ngaphandle kokuqonda kwakhe okuthe ngqo, uArendt uhlala eyimpembelelo ekhokelayo kuGessen, hayi kuba kunyanzelekile, uyazi, into esiyibonayo ngoku ichazwa ngokulula zizixhobo azenzileyo zokuqonda ubuzwilakhe. Kodwa ngenxa yokuba ecinga ngokucacileyo kwezopolitiko kwaye abuyele emsebenzini wakhe kwaye akhunjuzwe ukuba yintoni ezopolitiko, kubaluleke kakhulu. Ndicinga ukuba elinye lamagalelo akhe [ekugxekeni] ngumbuzo wokuba kutheni sinopolitiko, kwaye intle kangakanani.

Kukubonga okwabelwanayo ngobuhle bemvelo obufumaneka kuthethathethwano lwezopolitiko oluzisa ithemba kwizigxeko zikaGessen ezimfiliba. Kunqabile ukuba athethe ngale ndlela, kodwa [uArendt] yingcinga ebalaseleyo yobuntu ngengqondo yokuba eyona nto iphambili ayizisayo ekuqondeni nayiphi na inkqubo yezopolitiko yinto eyenzekayo ekuzibandakanyeni kwabantu kwezopolitiko kuloo nkqubo. Kukho ukucinga okuhle ngale ndlela-ukuba abantu bafuna ukuba nezopolitiko kunye, ukuba abantu bafuna ukufuna ubulungisa kunye, ukuba abantu bafuna ukufikelela kwintlanganiso yeengqondo kunye neentliziyo ekudaleni umhlaba oqhelekileyo. Zizo zonke iingcinga zakhe ezisisiseko. Emva koko ujonge kwihlabathi elijikelezileyo kwaye alicazulule ngezo ngcinga. Ngamanye amaxesha ndiya kubuyela umva ndifunde idosi encinci yeArendt ukuze ndifumane into entsha. Umzekelo, ndiyenzile le ntetho malunga nesizungu kunye nokuzikhetha kutshanje, kwaye ayisiyongqangi ukubhekisa kuArendt kwiingcinga zakhe malunga nesizungu kunye nokuba wedwa. Kodwa ngenene kufana nenxalenye encinci, encinci Imvelaphi yoBuzwilakhe Apho abeka khona umbono wakhe malunga nendalo yomntu kunye nendima yesizungu, ukuba wedwa kunye nokuba wedwa. Le yenye yeembono ezintle zoluntu.

Olo luvo loluntu lujolise kwinkolo yokuba ngokudibeneyo, uluntu luya kuyibona inkohlakalo efakwe ngokugxininisa kwiyantlukwano kunye nengcwangu. Ngelixa uGessen ekholelwa ukuba uluntu lwaseMelika lunokoyisa ukutshabalaliswa kolawulo lwentando yesininzi olwenziwe ngezenzo zopolitiko kunye nokusetyenziswa gwenxa kolwimi kukaTrump, olo tshintsho lunokwenzeka kuphela kwimizamo yokudibanisa. Nangona kunjalo, ukwahlulwa kwethu okwangoku okuziswe ngulo bhubhane kubeka esichengeni kuluntu. UGessen uthi, Ndicinga ukuba kukho into embi eyenzekayo kubuhlobo. Akunjalo nje ngokuba asikwazi ukubonana, kodwa ngenxa yokuba ubuhlobo buhlala buyi-bridge phakathi koluntu kunye nolwangasese. Kwenzeka ntoni kwibhulorho? I-atrophying kuba, uyazi, kuba sonke ngoku sikwindawo yabucala, kwaye iyoyikeka kum.

Ngelixa ubukhulu becala ibibhalwe ngaphambi kwe-COVID-19, Ukusinda kulawulo oluzenzekelayo ibandakanya intshayelelo kunye ne-epilogue ethetha ngesoyikiso esivela kubhubhane kubantu baseMelika. Ekuzihlukaniseni kwethu kwaye abaninzi behlanganisene bekhalazela inkohlakalo yamapolisa, kufuneka senze ixesha lokufunda ngaphaya kwezihloko, sisebenzisa umbono othe chatha ngakumbi kumava ethu kule minyaka mine idlulileyo. Ingcaciso entle kaGessen yenkungu esihlala kuyo, indlela yokuziphatha kwabo banethemba lokuqhubela phambili loo meko, kunye nembuyekezo yobuntu ekufuneka sithumele kuyo amandla ethu, yenze le ncwadi ukuba umntu ayithumele kubahlobo nakwintsapho. Okubandakanyiweyo kufuneka isimemo sokuxoxa xa sigqibile. Akwanelanga ukugcina ibhulorho yonxibelelwano, kufuneka silungise imigaqo esithetha ngayo kwaye sibonisane. UGessen utyhila umthombo wokungazinzi kwezopolitiko nakwintlalo kwincwadi yabo enamandla.

Amanqaku Umdla