Eyona Ezopolitiko Ngaba iGerrymandering ngokungafanelekanga ayifanelekanga kwiidemokhrasi?

Ngaba iGerrymandering ngokungafanelekanga ayifanelekanga kwiidemokhrasi?

I-Rally yeeMephu eziMnandi ibibanjelwe phambi kweNkundla ePhakamileyo yase-US ngolwesiBini, nge-Matshi 26, 2019 eWashington, DC.USarah Voisin / iWashington Post ngokusebenzisa imifanekiso kaGetty



Uninzi lweenkululeko lwasabela ngokudana kwisigwebo esikwilizwe URucho v. Isizathu esiqhelekileyo ityala , Malunga nokusasazeka ngokuchasene nedemokhrasi eMantla Carolina. Kodwa ngaba abaDemokhrasi ngokwenene bangamaxhoba okusasazeka malunga nokusasazwa kweendaba? Ukufumanisa oku, ndaye ndacazulula zonke iziphumo zonyulo lweNdlu ukusukela ngo-2000, ndaze ndajonga kwizifundo zamabali amabini athi: IPennsylvania neGeorgia.

Isihlangu kolunye unyawo ngaphaya kweTar Heel State

Kwinkomfa yesayensi yezopolitiko e-Mobile, e-Alabama kunyaka ophelileyo, isithethi sethu esiphambili esivela kwiyunivesithi yase-North Carolina sathetha nge-gerrymandering, ukuba yenziwa njani, kwaye imbi kangakanani, ngakumbi kwi-Democratic Party.

BONA KWAKHO: Leliphi iqela lezopolitiko eliKhethe ngakumbi malunga nabaTyunjiweyo beSCOTUS?

Ndibuze lo mbuzo ulandelayo: Kukho ilizwe elinemimandla engaphezulu kwe-10 yenkongolo apho uMdemokhrasi wokugqibela aphumelele unyulo kwiNdlu yabaMeli yenzeka ngonyaka we-1994. Kule minyaka ingamashumi amabini idlulileyo, urhulumente unyule uninzi lwedemokhrasi kwindlu yirhuluneli, kwaye nkqu nokhetho lweNdlu yeeNgwevu. Ungathi lo ngumzekelo we-gerrymandering?

Ewe, uninzi lweenkomfa-ezihambayo zavumelana nale ngxelo. Emva koko ndiphakamise isandla sam ukulungiselela ingxelo elandelayo kubaphulaphuli. Ngokwenyani, bendithetha ukuthi akukho Riphabhlikhi wayephumelele unyulo lwenkongolo kweli lizwe ukusukela ngo-1994, kwaye ilizwe ngokwalo liseMassachusetts.

Ewe ndingaba njalo. Ndifana naloo valedictorian owathi wacaphula uTrump kubaphulaphuli bakhe abalondolozayo, kulandelwa sisityhilelo sokuba u-Obama uthe ngokwenene esi sicatshulwa sokuba ababukeli basandul 'ukuvuya. Kodwa kukho isizathu sokuba kutheni EMaryland wakhuliswa kwimeko yemeko yenkundla, njengoko urhulumente wayenerhuluneli yeRiphabhlikhi yamanqwanqwa amabini okugqibela kodwa elawulwa ziiDemokhrasi kwiNdlu yabameli.

Uhlalutyo lweNdlu yabameli

Ukuba iiDemokhrasi zichanekile kwiingxoxo zabo zokuba iivoti zabo zithathiwe kunyulo lweNdlu, kufuneka zibonakale kwivoti yesizwe. Ngamanye amagama, kufanele ukuba bafumana iivoti ezininzi kwilizwe liphela, kuphela ukuba babiwe ngokungafanelekanga kwizithili ezahlukeneyo kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo, ukuze iRiphabhlikhi ifumane uninzi, akunjalo?

Iidemokhrasi zihlala zicebisa ukutshintshela kwinkqubo yelizwekazi laseYurophu esekwe kuyo uluhlu lwamaqela okanye iinkqubo zokumelwa ngokulinganayo . (I-Bhritane isagcina inkqubo yelungu elinye, kwaye iJamani ine-hybridi.) Ipesenti yakho yevoti ithanda ukulingana nepesenti yakho yesihlalo kunye nokhetho, ngamaqela amancinci angaweli kumda osuswe kwaye loo maqela afumana iivoti ezininzi kunowona mgangatho uphantsi nyusa okuseleyo. Kuya kwenzeka ntoni ukuba sinento enje ngala mthetho wokubulala ulwelo olubulala umntu ngesondo?

Ukwenza oku, ndijonge zonke i-10 Unyulo lweNdlu ukusukela ngo-2000 ukuya ku-2018 . Ndihlolisise iqela ngalinye lesabelo sevoti, leliphi iqela elifumene izihlalo, kwaye leliphi iqela eliphumeleleyo ngokolawulo lwesebe elisezantsi leCongress uqobo. Nantsi into endiyifumeneyo.

Njengoko ubona, umahluko phakathi kweedemokhrasi kunye neRiphabhlikhi awukho mkhulu njengoko ucinga ngolu nyulo. Kwiimeko ezintathu, iiDemokhrasi ziphumelele iipesenti ezingama-50 okanye ngaphezulu kwevoti yelizwe lonke kathathu, ngelixa iRiphabhlikhi iphumelele iipesenti ezingama-50 okanye ngaphezulu kwevoti kwilizwe liphela amatyeli amathathu.

Ngapha koko, abantu baseRiphabhlikhi bagqibile kuqala kwipesenti yevoti ezintandathu kwezilishumi zokugqibela zeNdlu yoBameli. Ukanti iiDemokhrasi zifumene izihlalo kunyulo lwesithandathu kulonyulo lokugqibela kwezi zithili zibanjiweyo. Kunzima kancinci ukuphikisa ukuba ukomelela ngokwemvelo kuyonzakalisa iDemocratic Party. Ewe, abantu baseRiphabhlikhi balugcinile ulawulo lweNdlu kwizihlandlo ezisixhenxe kwezi zilishumi, kodwa kulindeleke ukuba banikwe ukuba bagqibe kuqala kwezintandathu, nangaphezulu kwama-50ipesentiphawula ngaphezulu kunedemokhrasi. Baye baphumelela iipesenti ezingama-49 okanye ngaphezulu amaxesha amabini ongezelelweyo, kwaye iiDemokhrasi azikaze.

Ngaba iGerrymandering iyasebenza nyani?

Andiphikisi ukuba i-gerrymandering ayikho. Sibe nesithili se-I-85 eMantla Carolina kunye Ukukhaba kwisithili sikaDonald Duck ePennsylvania (kwaye ewe, ijongeka ngokungathi yi-Disney mayhem), kunye nesithili sam eWest Georgia ngo-2002, apho imigca yesithili yayiwela iindlela ezininzi kwiiteki kwindawo yethu eyayiphazamisa abahlali, kwanabagqatswa bobabini. amaqela, awayengaqinisekanga ukuba akhankase phi. Ummeli owayeze kukhankanya kwikholeji yethu kamva wafumanisa ukuba isithili sakhe sasikwelinye icala lesitalato. Ndamxelela ukuba izindlu zobuzalwana ezingaphaya kwesitalato zazingabemi bakhe, ke ubuncinci yinto leyo.

Kodwa ngumdlalo odlalwa ngamaqela omabini. Kwaye ngamanye amaxesha, amaqela abawela kakhulu kwisithili sabo bezobonisa inzondelelo. Emva koBalo luka-2000 lwase-US, iPublic Republic Party yazama ukudweba izithili ukuba zifake iiDemokhrasi kwiNdlu yasePennsylvania kwaye zenze ilahleko zezihlalo, kubandakanywa ilungu elinamandla okanye amabini. Kwenzeka into efanayo eGeorgia emva koBalo luka-2000, nangona yayingooDemokhrasi abazama ukunamathela kwi-GOP kwiPeach State, kwaye yababiza kunyulo oluninzi.

I-GOP izamile ukubamba izithili ngakumbi nangakumbi ngo-2010. NgokuUmmeli waseMelika U-Lucy McBath , weDemokhrasi yaseGeorgia, uhleli kwisihlalo esidala saseRiphabhlikhi sikaTom Price, kunyeGOP impendulo. URob Woodall uthatha umhlala phantsi emva kokuphoswa ngo-2018. Ababambeleyo kwiDemokhrasi abakhange babonakale besesichengeni kwiNdlu njengoko bebeqhele ukwenza, kwaye ngoku balawula izihlalo ezingaphezulu kwi-General General Assembly yaseGeorgia, ngenxa yokuphinda ujikeleze emaphethelweni eAtlanta, inyani yokuba iGeorgia GOP ikhathazekile njengokuba iqela liqhubeka Ukujikeleza kwizithili ezisemaphandleni ezilondolozayo, ukusuka kude neendawo ezisemaphandleni.

I-Gerrymandering inokusebenzela unyulo okanye ezimbini, kodwa into ebonakala ilungile kanye emva kokuba umsebenzi we-US Census Bureau wenziwe ayizukubakho kutshintsho lwedemokhrasi, abantu abahambayo, izinto ezingathathelwa ingqalelo ngaphezulu kwendlela enokuthi ifake idatha phantse kwiminyaka engamashumi amabini ubudala. Ndiyakwazi ukukuxelela ukuba indawo yaseKennesaw apho iNewt Gingrich yakha yaphumelela khona ikhangeleka yahluke kakhulu namhlanje, kungekuphela nje ngendlela ekhule ngayo kodwa nakhona ohlala apho ngoku. Ngaphezulu, amaqela akanakunceda, ngokuzama ngokuzama ukongeza izibini zezithili apha naphaya, bezisasaza kakhulu kakhulu, kodwa baphulukana nabathunywa bakarhulumente phantsi kwendlela.

Esona sisombululo yile Abavoti benze kwiindawo ezininzi zovavanyo-zimvo , ebandakanya ukukhethwa kwebhodi yezopolitiko ezingathathi cala ukuzoba izithili, ezinokuba sisivumelwano esingcono eMelika. Ngomyalelo wesicwangciso esahlula amabandla ambalwa ngangokunokwenzeka, ekugqibeleni sinokubona utshintsho olwamkelekileyo kwimizobo yesithili kwixesha elizayo.

UJohn A. Tures nguprofesa wesayensi yezopolitiko eLaGrange College eLaGrange, eGeorgia-funda ibali lakhe elipheleleyo apha.

Amanqaku Umdla